Pre-Christian Celts and the Legend of Saint Brigid
|St Brigid’s Cros|
by Kat Behling
The Irish are not only blessed with their unsurpassed gift of gab, but are highly regarded as the epitome of storytellers, spinning colorful tales and adventures from traditional legends dating back to 3rd Century BC when the first Celts arrived and settled on the shores of Ireland.
These pre-Christian Celts devised magical tales that romanticized and honored their mighty legion of gods’ and deities’ superhuman powers. Entwined with common underlying themes such as heroism, spiritual journeys or supernatural love, the gods confronted faeries, spirits and monstrous beasts who not only represented the creative forces of nature – both good and evil – but also reflected early religious and cultural beliefs. Later, with the arrival of Christianity, stories juxtaposed both pagan legends and Christian saints within the same tale. The legend of St. Patrick, one of Ireland’s three patron saints, is said to have used his sacred wooden staff to banish evil serpents from the island; along with Brigid, the ancient earth goddess of fire and wisdom and the patron saint of farming and agriculture; and the story of Colm Cille, the founder of Christian monasteries are probably the most notable and celebrated of the Irish saints. Holy wells dedicated to each individual saint are still frequented on their respective feast days in many rural areas of Ireland where people come from miles around to pray for relief of physical ailments or spiritual distress.
Many Irish historians speculate that the faerie kings and queens who make frequent appearances in these century’s old tales are in fact the ancient pagan gods and goddesses themselves “in disguise.” After being buried under the guise of Catholicism and eventually replaced by Christian saints on the Irish calendar, their spirits live on through these mythical tales. Having been passed down from one generation to the next, continuing to evolve and surviving solely by word of mouth, it was not until the Middle Ages when they were finally collected and preserved for future generations by Christian monks and scribes did they begin to resemble the enchanting folktales familiar to young and old readers of Irish folklore today.
|St Brigid shown with a St Brigid’s Cross which is made of straw and a perpetual fire, representing wisdom, poetry, healing, therapy, metallurgy and the hearth.|
The Legend of Brigid
Wearing white robes and sweeping the country on her ramshackle chariot, She swept across Ireland urging peace, freedom and good spirits. Her generosity was legendary, her political power unparalleled. This is Brigid of Kildare, the goddess, the slave who became a saint – who was known as much for her homebrew as she was for her generosity. So powerful was she, that the Celtic festival of Imbolc on February 1st marked not only the first day of spring on the Celtic calendar, but her feast day as well.
Legend has it she was born among flames of fire and angels near Dundalk around 453, daughter to a slave who had become pregnant by her master. The master’s wife was so enraged that both mother and daughter were banished to work for another master miles away where Brigid became known as a great dairywoman, whose extraordinary spirit won her and her mother eventual freedom. Like many themes surrounding her folklore, she is said to have a magical cloak and a love for poetry and song.
She founded a community of women in Kildare and one of the first monasteries which became centers for craft and illuminated manuscripts, as well as her famed ale which is said to have kept the entire peoples of Kildare refreshed for the 10 days from Holy Thursday to Low Sunday. By the time of her death, she was leader of almost 13,000 sisters all over the country and a spiritual role model for men. Some believed her name alone was powerful enough to repel the huge sea monsters which threatened their journeys.
Brigid was known for her hospitality and abundance. Unlike most saints, she was extremely healthy. If she leaned on a wooden altar, the dead wood would begin to sprout. Butter churned from her hands, dry cows gave milk. No one went hungry.
Traces of Brigid persist in place names throughout Ireland. Her woven cross of reeds known as St. Brigid’s Cross, stands as an age-old symbol of sunshine and bounty. Families hang them in doorways as a sign of protection. But her status as an ancient feminist icon as well as a symbol of female spirituality remains her legacy – even in modern times when female spirituality are mostly ignored by Christian churches.